Compensation/variation

Strategic use of contrasting soundscapes can be employed as a way to enhance their respective differences as qualities, such as making a tranquil area seem relatively quiet in relation to a busy street.

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Embrace wanted sounds

To embrace wanted sounds is to identify qualities that already exist in the soundscape so that they can be used as a prerequisite to locate new functions.

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Avoid unwanted sounds

This involves strategic localisation of sensitive functions in positions sheltered from noise.

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Embrace unwanted sounds

To embrace unwanted sounds is to acknowledge (existing) noise as an urban quality that may be suitable for certain functions, like markets.

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Vegetation for noise reduction

This concerns the role vegetation can play in some contexts to reduce noise

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High noise screens

High noise screens are approximately 1.8 m and above. These screens should be located as close to the source (or listener) as possible for optimal effect.

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Low noise screens

A low noise screen compensates for its lower height (up to around 1 m) by increased proximity to the noise it is screening.

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Buildings as screens

Strategically located buildings can be used as less obvious, yet effective, noise screens, also in combination with conventional screens.

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Changed topography

The shaping of the landscape topography can be used to form hills, berms or strategically shielded valleys.

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Reduce source activity

The reduction of source activity constitutes a broad number of measures that are aimed to influence the way an activity is carried out, so that noise is reduced.

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Maintenance

Everyday maintenance of outdoor space can have negative influences on the soundscape, particularly through use of machines with combustion engines.

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Absorbing qualities of materials

The absorbing qualities of certain materials can be used to reduce the impact from the sound, particularly in conjunction with unwanted source activities like roads.

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Auditory masking

The term auditory masking implies that a sound (masker sound) influences the perception of another sound (target sound), so that the focus shifts from the target to the masker sound.

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Visual masking

The general idea with visual masking is to hide the visibility of an unwanted sound source, and thus shift the focus away from the noise and reduce the negative impact.

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Sounds of water

Water is a classical component in landscape design that can be used for multi-sensory effects.

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Sounds of vegetation

The sound of vegetation is often associated with leaves that rustle in the wind.

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Walking materials

Walking constitutes an interaction with the landscape that can be enhanced through sonic feedback.

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Atmospheric design (loudspeaker-based)

Speakers are increasingly being used for various purposes in urban situations.

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Sound sculptures

Sound sculptures are installations that include sound as an important and obvious part of an embellishment.

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Biotope design

Through consideration of biotopes, you can affect the attraction on birds and other animals that contribute to sonic experiences.

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Attract activities

Areas intended for specific human activities, like cafés or playgrounds, generates a certain kind of soundscape.

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Resonance and reflection

The acoustic qualities of materials and spaces can be used to enhance wanted sounds through resonance and/or reflections.

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